Fenians, Loyalists, and a Timeline of Irish Republicanism.
1534 - Henry VIII, King of England, declares the Church of England separate from Rome and himself head of the Church as Defender of the Faith.
1536 - Henry VIII, as Lord of Ireland, forces the Irish Parliament to declare him head of the Church of Ireland as well. Most of the population, however, does not adopt the new faith and remains Catholic. It is entirely plausible that if he had not attempted the imposition, Ireland would have gone Protestant or Reformed on its own, as Scotland did under John Knox.
1541 - Henry VIII has himself declared King of Ireland by the Irish Parliament, and begins the "Tudor reconquest" of the country with the aim of Anglicizing its gentry. The "pacification" begins with an attempt to plant voluntary colonies of English around Ireland on land leased from landowners.
1542 - Death of James V Stuart, King of Scots; succession of his daughter, Mary, as Queen of Scots, though she returns to France, only coming back after her husband, the Dauphin then King of France, dies.
1547 - Death of Henry VIII of England and of Ireland; succession of his son as Edward VI.
1553 - Death of Edward VI of England and of Ireland; succession of his eldest sister as Mary I. Mary, a staunch Roman Catholic, launched a severe backlash against Protestants in the realm, including the burning at the stake of nearly 300 people for heresy. Mary, however, shows no favour or mercy towards her co-religionists in Ireland, and the plantations continue.
1556 - The attempted Plantation of Offaly and Laois begins in the face of overwhelming resistance from the O’Connor and O'Moore's, the targets of the Plantation, but ultimately fails, despite the massacre of the leaders of the latter clan under a flag of truce in 1578.
1558 - Death of Mary I of England and of Ireland; succession of her sister as Elizabeth I.
1560 - The Church of Scotland separates from Rome by vote of the Scottish Parliament.
1561 - Mary, Queen of Scots, finally returns to her realm.
1567 - Mary of Scots is forced to abdicate in favour of her infant son by the deceased Earl of Lennox, who is proclaimed James VI of Scots. She seeks refuge with her cousin, Elizabeth I.
1569 to 1573 - First Desmond Rebellion.
1570's - The attempted Plantation of County Antrim, which the O’Neill’s of Clandeboy and MacDonnell’s of Antrim, the targets, resisted fiercely with help from the Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland. After the murder of 200 of the O’Neill’s, including the chief and his family, at a dinner to which the Earl of Essex had invited them in 1574 and the massacre of 600 MacDonnell’s on Rathlin Island by Francis Drake, Elizabeth I, appalled at the slaughter, called a halt.
1579 to 1583 - Second Desmond Rebellion.
1584 - Beginning of the Plantation of Munster, more widespread than the earlier efforts but ultimately no more successful until after the end of the Nine Years' War, when it was reinstituted.
1587 - Mary Stuart, former Queen of Scots, is beheaded in England. This prompted the expedition to England of the ill-fated Spanish Armada to depose Elizabeth I.
1594 to 1603 - Nine Year's War. Although fought all over the country in resistance to Plantations, most of the action took place in the North, under the O’Neill’s of Tyrone and the O’Donnell’s of Tyrconnell, who led the Irish side.
1603 - Union of the Scottish with the English and Irish Crowns as James VI of Scots becomes James I of England and of Ireland as well upon the death of Elizabeth I of England and of Ireland.
1606 - Following a deal with O'Neill of Clandeboy, the "unofficial" plantation of Cos. Antrim and north Down by Hamilton and Montgomery begins.
1607 - Flight of the Earls (Tyrone and Tyrconnell). The intention of O'Neill and O'Donnell was to secure Spanish assistance for a new rising, but their lands were declared forfeit and seized, long with those of all native landowners following the insurgency of Cahir O'Doherty in 1608.
1610 - Beginning of the Ulster Plantation under James VI and I; the targeted counties include Antrim, Down, Tyrone, Cavan, Fermanagh, and Donegal, with the settlers being removed from the Borders, Galloway, and Ayrshire regions of southwest Scotland, and the corresponding areas in northern England. After this year, the Stuarts sponsored more and more plantations, as well as Protestant immigration from Continental Europe. Prior to this, Catholic landlords in Ireland had already been importing tenants from these very same regions.
1625 - James VI & I dies; Charles I of England, of Scots, and of Ireland takes the throne.
1639 to 1652 - Wars of the Three Kingdoms, listed individually below.
1639 to 1640 - Bishops' Wars in Scotland. The Covenanters, led militarily by James Graham, Marquis of Montrose, take power in Scotland.
1641 to 1652 - Irish Confederate War, or Eleven Years War. It started with an attempted coup d'etat by the Catholic gentry, but quickly turned to sectarian violence in the face of the vast overreaction by Dublin Castle and subsequent attack on the civilian population. In response, the native Gaelic majority rose massacring "settlers" in numbers, which the latest estimates give as 4,000, with another 12,000 dying from starvation, exposure, and disease. In an attempt to regain control and halt the atrocities, the early leaders of the rebellion establish the Catholic Confederation of Ireland, composed of previously antagonistic native Gaelic and Hiberno-Norman or "Old English" populations. The Confederates fight as allies of the Royalists, but only in their own country, against English Parliamentarians and Scottish Covenanters sent by the government of Edinburgh, in the midst of internecine strife. Owen Roe O'Neill returns from Spain to take command of the Confederate armies, but dies of disease in 1649 not long after Cromwell lands with a huge army and undertakes the thorough reconquest of the country, accompanied by widespread atrocities condoned and encouraged by him, most notably the horrific massacre of the Confederate defenders at Drogheda, in what is acknowledged as the most ruthless parts of the Wars.
1642 to 1646 - First English Civil War.
1644 to 1645 - Scottish Civil War. Realizing the threat to Charles I, Montrose comes out of retirement and leads the Covenanters against the allies of Cromwell's Roundheads in Scotland. He is assisted by a 2000-man contingent of well-disciplined troops lent from the Irish Confederation under Alistair MacColla. After securing the country is series of six battles, Montrose is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Scotland. Ultimately, though, the effort fails and Montrose departs for Norway, to return after Charles' regicide only to be captured and hanged.
1648 to 1649 - Second English Civil War. At the end of the War, Cromwell orders the execution of Charles I. The Scottish Parliament, in Jersey, and some of the American colonies, most notably the Commonwealth of Virginia, almost immediately recognizes his son, Charles, as King.
1650 to 1651- Third English Civil War. Charles Stuart, son of Charles I, is enthroned as King of Scots in Edinburgh, but its driven out shortly thereafter by a republican army under Cromwell.
1652 - Beginning of the Cromwellian Plantation, the harshest of all Plantations, with Catholic landowners banished to Connacht, Catholics banned from living in any towns, and thousands transported to the West Indies as indentured servants, which was the 17th century equivalent of sending them to concentration camps.
1660 - Restoration of the monarchy. Charles I of Scots becomes Charles I of England and of Ireland also.
1685 - Charles I dies. His brother succeeds him as James VII of Scots and James II of England and of Ireland.
1688 to 1697 - War of the Grand Alliance, which included the Williamite War (see below) and King Williams' War in the Americas.
1688 - James VII & II abdicates his throne in London. The London Parliament invites Mary Stuart, his daughter, and her husband, William, Prince of Orange, to take the throne in his place as joint rulers as Mary II of England, Scots, and Ireland, and as William III of England and Ireland and William II of Scots.
1689 to 1691 - Williamite Wars in Scotland and Ireland. In contrast to popular belief, the war was about politics rather than religion or ethnicity, with the Williamite and Jacobite armies both sometimes nearly equally composed of Catholics and Protestants; it was William of Orange, however, who had the Vatican's blessing, along with a contingent of the Swiss Guard which included its musicians, who were in the vanguard of his army at the Battle of the Boyne, a relatively minor battle now celebrated as a Protestant triumph by the Orange Order (LOL).
1692 - Infamous massacre of the MacIains of Glen Coe by Williamite troops who had been quartered among them as guests, on orders of William III & II himself.
1694 - Mary II dies of smallpox, leaving William III as sole ruler.
1690's - Huge influx of Scots into Ulster from the southern Lowlands and Borders, and of those from the northern counties of England, due to widespread famine. Beginning of a majority of those in Ulster being of Scottish descent.
1701 - Death of the former James VII & II, his son, James Francis Edward, inherits his claims and is called James VIII & III by the Jacobites.
1702 - William III & II dies, and Anne, Mary II's younger sister, assumes the thrones of England, of Scots, and of Ireland.
1707 - Union of Parliaments of England and Scotland. Queen Anne's title is now Queen of Great Britain and Ireland.
1708 - First Jacobite Rising in Scotland, led by the Duke of Hamilton with the support of the Cameroonians, the most extreme of the Covenanters. The primary motive is to destroy the Union; restoration of the Stuart dynasty in the person of James VIII & III is only a secondary goal.
1714 - Queen Anne dies; Parliament invites George Welph, Prince Elector of Hanover and Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg to take the throne as King of Great Britain and Ireland.
1715 - Second Jacobite Rising in Scotland, led by the Earl of Mar.
1717 to 1775 - The period of the Great Migrations from Ulster, most, but not all, of people from families of Scots origin, to settle in North America. In all, some 250,000 make the trans-Atlantic crossing, as compared to a mere 100,000 from the rest of Ireland, while another 150,000 also immigrate to America from the Borders and northern England.
1719 - Third Jacobite Rising in Scotland led by Murray of Tullibardine and Keith, the Earl Marischal.
1727 - Death of George I; he is succeeded by his son as George II of Great Britain, of Ireland, and of Hanover.
1745 to 1746 - Fourth Jacobite Rising, led by Bonnie Prince Charlie, the Young Pretender, in the name of his father, James VIII & III, the Old Chevalier, and Lord George Murray and supported by 800 men from the Royal Scots and Irish Brigade regiments of France, with half their force made up of Scottish Episcopalians from the Lowlands. Harsh penal laws follow as the Highlanders, with no exemptions even for Hanoverian supporters: Gaelic was forbidden to be spoken, the wearing of tartan and kilts and the playing of bagpipes were all outlawed, clans were broken up, lands seized, etc.
1760 - Death of George II; succession of George III as King of Great Britain, King of Ireland, and Elector of Hanover.
1766 - Death of James the Old Chevalier; succession to his claims of his son, called Charles III of England, of Scots, and of Ireland by his supporters.
1775 to 1783 - American Revolution. The Patriot side was widely supported among the recent settlers from Ulster who came over during the Great Migrations, and likewise supported by the Jacobite underground in the colonies; in fact, secret negotiations were carried out between Charles and a secret delegation from the Continental Congress, but they came to naught.
1778 - Establishment of the first Irish Volunteers, which remain as a force until 1793; in the beginning the members are almost entirely Protestant and Dissenter, with Ascendancy leaders, but gradually Catholics are admitted as well.
1782 - Grattan persuades London Parliament to grant Dublin Parliament greater powers.
1783 - Treaty between Great Britain and the United States.
1789 to 1799 - French Revolution.
1788 - Death of Charles, the Young Pretender; succession to the Stuart claims of his brother Henry Cardinal Stuart as Henry IX to his supporters.
1789 - Storming of the Bastille. Louis XVI, King of France, forced to abdicate.
1791 - Publication of Paine's Rights of Man. Society of United Irishmen founded by Theobald Wolfe Tone and Thomas Russell, both Church of Ireland, at the invitation of a group of Belfast Presbyterians. The initial goal is to reform the Irish Parliament, but this changes in 1795 to seeking independence in order to obtain the assistance of France.
1795 -United Irishmen change their goal to complete sovereignty. Orange Order founded to oppose the United Irishmen and oppose the proposed Union of the Dublin Parliament with that of London; at this time membership is limited to "Protestants" (Anglicans of the Church of Ireland).
1797 - Rising of the United Scotsmen.
1798 - First Rising of the United Irishmen, under Tone.
1801 - Act of Union of Great Britain and Ireland. The realm is now known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1803 - Second Rising of the United Irishmen, under Emmet.
1807 - Death of Henry, Cardinal-Duke of York; end of serious Stuart pretentions.
1820 - Radical War in Scotland. George III dies, and his son succeeds him as George IV, who becomes fond of the writings of Walter Scott and relaxes the penal laws against Highland dress and language.
1822 - The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) is established.
1823 - Daniel O'Connell establishes Catholic Association for Emancipation of Irish Catholics from the Penal Laws.
1829 - Catholic Relief Bill passed.
1830 - Death of George IV; succession of his son as William IV.
1834 - Presbyterians, Episcopalians, and other "Dissenters" first admitted to LOL.
1837 - Death of William IV; succession of his daughter as Queen Victoria, the last monarch in London from the House of Hanover.
1841 - Repeal of the Union Movement is formed; Young Ireland Movement is later formed for more radical goals and actions.
1845 to 1847 - The Great Famine. Due to a blight on the potato crop, the staple of the Irish diet, between 1 € ¦½ to 2 million Irish starve to death even while enough food to feed the entire country twice over is exported from the country by the corporate interests which control the island's trade, with another 1 million emigrating to other countries.
1847 - Irish Confederation is organized, with Young Irelanders as its backbone.
1848 - Young Ireland Rising.
1858 - Rossa begins organizing the Phoenix National and Literary Society, which later merges with the IRB.
1858 - Fenian Brotherhood (FB) organized in America, while the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) is organized in Ireland
1866 - FB splits into O'Mahony Wing and Senate Wing; each wing launches its own invasion of Canada and both fail.
1867 - Aborted IRB Rising. Clan na Gael (CnaG) organized in America.
1873 - Home Rule League founded.
1871 - The Church of Ireland is disestablished by Parliament.
1876 - CnaG, IRB, and Australian Irish community establish the Revolutionary Directory, with three representatives each from the CnG and IRB, plus one from the Australian Irish expat community.
1879 - Irish Land League founded.
1880 - Fenian Brotherhood finally collapses.
1882 - Irish National League reorganized as Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP); Irish Unionist Party founded in opposition.
1882 to 1883 - Campaign of the Invincibles, led by O'Donovan Rossa.
1884 - Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) founded.
1892 - John Redmond assumes leadership of IPP.
1893 - Gaelic League founded by Douglas Hyde, a Protestant from Co. Roscommon.
1896 - Irish Socialist Republican Party founded by James Connolly.
1899 to 1902 - Nationalist and Unionist Irish and Irish-Americans fight on the side of the Afrikaners against the British during the Second Boer War, often in the same units.
1901 - The United Irish League of America is founded to support the goals of the Irish Parliamentary Party. Death of Queen Victoria; succession of her Edward VII Wettin of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
1905 - Sinn Fein Party founded. Ulster Unionist Council founded.
1907 - Hibernian Rifles break away from AOH. The Red Hand Commandos, which still exist in 2007, are formed in Belfast.
1908 - Irish Transport and General Workers Union founded by Jim Larkin.
1909 - Na Fianna Éireann founded by Constance Markievicz and Bulmer Hobson.
1910 - Death of Edward VII his son succeeds him as George V.
1913 - Ulster Volunteer Force founded by Edward Carson and James Craig under the Ulster Unionist Council. Irish National Volunteer Corps founded. Irish Citizen Army founded by James Larkin and James Connolly.
1914 to 1919 - The Great War, also known as the First World War.
1914 - INVC splits into National Volunteers under Redmond, who support Great Britain during WWI, and the nationalist Irish Volunteers under Eoin MacNeill. Cumann na mBan founded as the women's auxiliary to the Volunteers.
1916 - The Easter Rising by the Provisional Government of the Irish Republic (referred to in the Irish version as "Saorstat Éireann") and Army of the Irish Republic composed of the nationalist Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Fianna Éireann, Cumann na Bann, and Hibernian rifles. After the rising, the Friends of Irish Freedom is founded in America to support the republican prisoners-of-war from the Easter Rising in the aftermath of the sixteen executions, which follow.
1917 - George V changes the name of the royal family from Wettin to Windsor and drops the designation "of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha".
1919 to 1922 - War for Irish Independence/Anglo-Irish War, directed mostly by the IRB behind the scenes under its President, Michael Collins.
1919 - Irish Volunteers officially become Irish Republican Army; beginning of the War for Irish Independence.
1920 - The RIC organizes the RIC Reserve Force (Black & Tans), the Auxiliary Division (ADRIC), and the Ulster Special Constabulary (A-, B-, and C- Specials, USC) to provide support against the IRA.
1921 - Anglo-Irish Treaty; Partition of Ireland into Northern Ireland and the Irish Free State or "Saorstat Éireann". The Supreme Council of the IRB, with one exception (Liam Lynch) votes to accept the Treaty. The CnG does likewise; however, it splits into a John Devoy wing and a Joe McGarrity wing called Clan na Gael Reorganized.
1922 to 1923 - Irish Civil War.
1922 - The IRA divides into the Free Staters and the Irregulars, both using the names IRA, until the Free State forces officially change their English designation to Irish Defence Forces; however, both continue using the designation Óglaigh na h'Éireann. The Royal Ulster Constabulary is established in North East Ulster.
1923 - The IRA reorganizes itself as a clandestine organization, allied with Sinn Fein as its political arm. Pro-Treaty former members of Sinn Fein under William Cosgrave form the Cumann na nGaedheal.
1924 - The IRB votes to dissolve, after which the Devoy wing of CnG does likewise; the McGarrity wing, however, continues on as the sole CnG.
1925 - The IRA severs its relationship with Sinn Fein.
1926 - CnG formally associates with the reorganized IRA. DeValera establishes the Fianna Fail to contest elections, which later separates completely from the IRA. The A- and C-Specials of the USC are disbanded.
1927 - The London government changes its name to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
1931 - Peadar O'Donnell and others organize Saor Eire as a left-leaning nationalist political party, but the effort fizzles.
1932 - Hundreds of working-class Catholics and Protestants across the Six Counties unite to form the Outdoor Workers Relief Committee; in spite of massive assaults by the B-Specials on Shankhill and the Fall, the resulting strike is successful and the movement spreads. Richard Mulcahy and others form the Army Comrades Association, made up of former IRA men who supported the Treaty side during the Civil War, to provide support and for former Free State soldiers and to protect Cumann meetings from attack by members of the IRA.
1933 - Eoin O'Duffy is expelled from his post as head of the Garda, then takes over the ACA and changes its name to the National Guard (aka Blueshirts). When that is banned a few months later, the former ACA members, Cumann na nGaedheal, and National Centre Party band together to form the Fine Gael.
1934 - O'Donnell and his allies reorganize under the name Republican Congress and are expelled from the IRA; the move splits IRA down the middle. The RC eventually gains adherents even in the Shankhill section of Belfast, and even includes a delegation from Shankhill in its march at Bodenstown, but collapses two years later due to lack of funds.
1936 - Death of George V; succession of his son as Edward VIII. Within a year, he abdicates the throne to his brother, who succeeds as George VI.
1936 to 1939 - Republicans and loyalists fight in the Spanish Civil War in the same unit of the International Brigades, while Blueshirts under O'Duffy fight on the side of Franco's Nationalists.
1939 to 1940 - IRA's Sabotage Campaign in England.
1942 to 1944 - IRA's Northern Campaign.
1946 - On the heels of the end of the Second World War, IRA leader Sean MacBride organizes the leftist republican Clann na Poblachta.
1951 - Liam Kelly organizes Saor Uladh after being expelled from the IRA.
1952 - Death of George VI; succession of his daughter as Elizabeth II, who will be the last from the House of Windsor/Wettin.
1956 to 1962 - IRA's Border Campaign.
1953 - Kelly establishes Fianna Uladh as the political wing of Saor Uladh.
1956 - IRA publishes first Green Book; individual members are referred to as Guerrillas. Paisley forms the Ulster Protection Action.
1957 - Saor Eire Action Group is formed.
1965 - Paisley forms the Ulster Constitution Committee and the paramilitary Ulster Protestant Volunteers.
1966 - A new Ulster Volunteer Force is established. Ulster Protestant Action becomes the Protestant Unionist Party.
1967 - Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association is organized. Former IRA members headed by former Dublin Brigade OC Frank Keane organizes Saor Eire Action Group, with a Trotskyite orientation.
1969 to 1998 - The Troubles.
1969 - The IRA splits into two: the "Official" IRA, and the Reorganized IRA following the "Provisional Army Council" (Gerry Adams remains with Official Sinn Féin/IRA). Foundation in America of the Irish Northern Aid Committee (NORAID) by Michael Flannery-Tipperary... and a handful of other men (some of whom were: Martin Lyons-Galway, Jack McCarthy-Cork, John McGowan-Clare, Thomas Enright-Dublin).
1970 - A split in republican ranks over policy in the Six Counties and the turn toward Marxism-Leninism results in an Official Sinn Fein and a Provisional Sinn Fein. The B-Specials are finally dissolved and most join the new Ulster Defence Regiment.
1971 - Democratic Unionist Party succeeds Protestant Unionist Party. Beginning of internment of both republican and loyalist suspects in the cages at Long Kesh.
1972 - The 1st Battalion of the Royal Parachute Regiment fires on a NICRA civil rights march in the city of Derry, killing fourteen and wounding many others, an incident now known as "Bloody Sunday". Ulster Defence Association/Ulster Freedom Fighters is organized as an umbrella group of loyalist paramilitaries.
1973 - Formation of the Scottish Republican Socialist Clubs.
1973 to 1978 - Activities of the South Derry Independent Republican Unit, which includes Francie Hughes, Dominic McGlinchney, Thomas McElwee, and others.
1974 - Three simultaneous bombings in Dublin and another in Monaghan one and a half hours later, the work of the UVF, kill 33 and wound over 300. Seamus Costello organizes the Irish Republican Socialist Party and the Irish National Liberation Army. The Ulster Workers Council strike destroys the Sunningdale Agreement.
1975 - A group from Saor Eire Action Group breaks away, calling itself Saoirse Eire, when the former decides to dissolve itself. Near the end of the year, secret talks take place between the Combined Loyalist Military Command and the Provisional Army Council, through intermediaries Desmond Boal and Sean MacBride, with the top leaders on both sides fully informed; the talks eventually reach an agreement to a mutual ceasefire and joint demand for the British Army to withdraw, but are scuttled by a second workers strike orchestrated by Paisley for unrelated reasons.
1976 - Prime Minister Thatcher orders an end to Political Status for political prisoners. Kieran Nugent, the first prisoner to arrive in the H-blocks at Long Kesh under the new rules, refuses to wear prison clothes, beginning the blanket protest, which many loyalists join.
1977 - Official Sinn Fein becomes Sinn Fein-The Workers' Party; the Provos issue a new Green Book, which refers to members as Volunteers, revives the term Óglaigh na h’Éireann, and reorganizes the organization from brigades and battalions into smaller Active Service Units.
1978 - Beginning of the dirty protest in the republican wing of the H-blocks.
1979 - Progressive Unionist Party is organized in the Shankill as the political arm of the UVF. Adam Busby founds the Scottish National Liberation Army, claiming the referendum that year on devolution was fixed; there is no relationship whatsoever with the similarly named Irish organization, nor is there one with the SRSP, which strongly condemns Busby's later actions.
1981 - The Hunger Strike for political status takes places in the republican wing of the H-blocks at Long Kesh, with seven PIRA and three INLA prisoners dying. Unionist Democratic Party is organized as the political arm of the UDA/UFF.
1982 - SF-WP becomes simply the Workers' Party. The Scottish Republican Socialist Clubs become the Scottish Republican Socialist Party; despite the similarity of name to the IRSP, neither the SRSP nor its successor, the cross party Scottish Republican Socialist Movement (1998), has never had a military counterpart.
1986 - The Adams wing of the Provisional Republican Movement launches a coup d'etat against the national leadership, and expel themselves from Sinn Féin. The National leadership remain and add Poblachtach (Republican) to Sinn Féin and 'Continuity' to IRA to differentiuate between those who expeled themselves as the Provisionls over Adams' abandonment of abstentionism. The DUP founds Ulster Resistance in opposition to the Anglo-Irish agreement. Persons expelled or forced to resign from the INLA form the Irish People's Liberation Organization; the IPLO is ultimately wiped out by PIRA six years later
1987 - Formation in America of the National Irish Freedom Committee by Michael Flannery, George Harrison, Joe Stynes and others, to provide American support for Republican Sinn Fein.
1992 - The UDR is amalgamated with the Royal Irish Regiment.
1995 - The Combined Loyalist Military Command, an umbrella group of all the loyalist factions, led by Gusty Spence, announces a cease-fire. Adam Busby founds the Scottish Separatist Group to serve as a political arm for his SNLA.
1996 - Billy Wright secedes from UVF and organizes the Loyalist Volunteer Force.
1997 - A group of OIRA members secede to form the Official Republican Movement over the direction the Workers' Party is then taking. Scots vote overwhelmingly for a national parliament of their own.
1998 - The PIRA and the INLA both announce cease-fires, ending The Troubles. The Provos sign the Good Friday Agreement with the UK and the ROI. Orange Volunteers are formed, and the 32 County Sovereignty Movement and Real IRA form, in opposition to the Good Friday Agreement. Formation in America of the Irish Freedom Committee based on the former Chicago camp of NIFC to support the 32CSM. A bombing carried out by RIRA in Omagh, Co. Tyrone, kills 29, including one woman pregnant with twins, and injures 220.
2001 - UDP is succeeded by the Ulster Political Research Group. RUC is incorporated into the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). The online magazine The Blanket is founded in Belfast to provide alternative views from across the political spectrum to not only events in the Northeast and the rest of Ireland, but in the rest of the world as well.
2002 - 32CSM/RIRA dissidents renounce violence and along with others form the New Republican Forum.
2006 - Dissidents from CIRA form the Irish Republican Liberation Army and the Continuity Liberation Movement. Dissidents from PIRA form an Independent Republican Unit. Republican socialist dissidents from PSF form "eirigi".
2007 - A group calling itself the Real UFF appears on the scene.